1. What is it?
Rhyme is the repeating of a phonetic sound at the end of words.
It is most commonly seen in poetry, although it can appear in advertising slogans, nursery rhymes, plays that involve linguistic style, songs, and proverbs.
Note: Rhyme structure is described by using an ABC system, with lines that rhyme given the same letter. Example: ABABCDCDEE
2. Why use it?
|Create a sense of flow in language.||Make memorable word combinations.|
There was a time
Back when I was at school
When I was a good student
Who played by the rules.
If you are after a look that is rare, make it Fly Streetwear.
Amongst the noise on the street
Amongst the people you meet
Amongst the bicycles and cars
Amongst the culture and bars
Amongst the cinemas and stores
And amongst the rich and poor
All life exists in Glasgow.
4. Examples in literature
The Lady of Shalott
Know Your Book
by Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Title: The Lady of Shalott
Author: Alfred, Lord Tennyson (Alfred Tennyson) (1809-1892)
Published: 1833 (original), 1842 (revised)
Genre: Poetry; lyrical ballad; tragedy
Synopsis: The Lady of Shalott is locked in a tower, cursed to die if she ever looks outside. Then one day the heroic handsome knight Sir Lancelot rides past on his way to Camelot. Tempted by the handsome gallant hero, the lady decides to look, and the curse begins.
Setting: An island castle near Camelot
Character: The Lady of Shalott, Sir Lancelot
Excerpt from Part 1, Stanzas 1 and 2:
On either side the river lie
Long fields of barley and of rye,
That clothe the wold and meet the sky;
And thro’ the field the road runs by
To many-tower’d Camelot;
And up and down the people go,
Gazing where the lilies blow
Round an island there below,
The island of Shalott.
Willows whiten, aspens quiver,
Little breezes dusk and shiver
Thro’ the wave that runs for ever
By the island in the river
Flowing down to Camelot.
Four gray walls, and four gray towers,
Overlook a space of flowers,
And the silent isle imbowers
The Lady of Shalott.
|Skimming, Scanning and Basic Comprehension|
1. To which town does the river flow?
2. What is in the middle of the river?
3. In what type of building does the Lady of Shalott live?
4. What is the rhyme structure of this poem?
5. As well as rhyme, the cadence of the poem helps create rhythm. How does Tennyson use cadence, and is it effective?
6. What imagery does Tennyson use in describing the island?
7. Tennyson often uses ‘noun + verb’ combinations in the poem, often without articles. What effect does this have?
8. Nature and natural elements are a common part of the scene. How and why are these used?
9. In what ways does Tennyson hint that The Lady of Shalott may be isolated and/or lonely?
10. What contrast is there in describing the people on the banks against the island in the stream?
11. In what way does the poem make it clear it is based on legend rather than a true story?
12. Do you feel poetry works better with a rhyme structure? Or is the flexibility of ‘free verse’ superior?
13. In later verses of The Lady of Shalott, the reader discovers the eponymous lady is cursed: she may not look directly at the outside world or leave her home, otherwise she will die. What do you think her best choice of action is? Why?
14. The Lady of Shalott ties to the legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, with The Lady being based on the character Elaine of Astolat. What other works do you know that base themselves loosely on legends?
15. The eponymous character in The Lady of Shalott eventually suffers a level of unrequited love (albeit described more as curiosity than love) for the knight Lancelot. How many different types of love can you think of? Which would you consider the best? And the worse?
The Somonyng of Everyman
Know Your Book
Title: The Somonyng of Everyman
Language: Middle English
Genre: Play; morality play
Synopsis: Unhappy with humankind’s materialism, God sends Death to Everyman. Afraid that he is to die, Everyman is granted a companion to Heaven. However, when Everyman asks Kindness, Fellowship and others to join, they all give excuses. Eventually, only Good Deeds joins Everyman in death – a moral reflecting that only one’s good deeds are worthwhile at the gates of Heaven.
Setting: Moment of death
Character: Everyman; Death; God; Good Deeds; Confession
Excerpt from Section 12 (adapted from Middle English):
Everyman: Welcome, my Good Deeds! Now I hear thy voice
I weep for very sweetness of love
Knowledge: Be no more sad, but ever rejoice:
God Seth they living in his throne above.
Put on this garment to thy behove,
Which is wet with your tears –
Or else before God you may it miss
When ye to your journey’s end come shall.
Everyman: Gentle Knowledge, what do ye it call?
Knowledge: It is a garment of sorrow;
From pain it will you borrow:
Contrition it is
That getteth forgiveness;
It pleaseth God passing well.
Good Deeds: Everyman, will you wear it for your heal?
Everyman: Now blessed be Jesu, Mary’s son,
For now have I on true contrition.
And let us go now without tarrying.
Good Deeds, have we clear our reckoning?
Good Deeds: Yes, indeed, I have it here.
Everyman: Then I trust we need not fear.
Now friends, let us not part in twain.
Knowledge: Nay, Everyman, that will we not, certain.
Good Deeds: Yet must thou lead with thee
Three persons of great might.
Everyman: Who should they be?
Good Deeds: Discretion and Strength they hight,
And thy Beauty may not abide behind.
Knowledge: Also ye must call to mind
Your Five-Wits as for your counselors.
Good Deeds: You must have them ready at all hours.
Everyman: How shall I get them hither?
Knowledge: You must call them all togither,
And they will be here incontinent.
Everyman: My friends, come hither and be present,
Discretion, Strength, my Five-Wits, and Beauty!
|1. The characters within the play are|
a) classical heroes
c) fallen angels
e) internal dialogues
|2. Which Christian symbol is not referred to in this section of the play?|
d) The Holy Robe
e) The Holy Grail
|3. What is the central concept of Everyman?|
|4. The sentence ‘You must call them all togither’ suggests|
a) conflict is nearing
b) being moral involves combining multiple concepts
c) rewards only come for those who ask
d) spirituality involves prayer
e) gaining God’s favour requires contrition
|5. Which of the following is true for both Everyman and The Lady of Shalott?|
a) Is a morality play
b) Involves the death of the main protagonist
c) Is written in Middle English
d) Links to widely-known religions or legends
e) Has an ABABCDCD rhyme structure
Task 1: Create an example of two basic rhymes: one as a 4-6 line child’s poem, and the other as an advertising slogan.
Task 2: Write either a 12 line sonnet using the ABABCDCDEFEFGG rhyme structure, or a scene from play in which characters hold a dialogue in rhyming couplets.