1. What are singulars and plurals?
A singular is a word that tells us there is only one.
A plural is a word that tells us there are more than one.
star is singular (there is only one star)
stars is plural (there are more than one star)
2. Different types of plurals
Most plurals are made by adding ‘s’ to the singular.
However, not all plurals are like this.
Nouns ending in ‘o’, ‘s’, ‘ch’, ‘th’, ‘sh’ or ‘x’ usually use ‘es’ for plurals:
However, this is not always true (for example, 1 path and 2 paths).
Nouns that end in one ‘f’ (or have ‘f’ as the last sound) often change the ‘f’ to ‘v’, then add ‘es’:
Again, this is not always true (for example: 1 reef, 2 reefs).
Some nouns in English have unusual plurals:
Unfortunately there is not an easy way to learn these; usually English speakers learn through experience.
No change plurals
There are some plurals (most often animals) that are the same as the singular:
3. Uncountable nouns are different
Singulars tell us there is one. Plurals tell us there are more than one.
But some nouns cannot be counted.
These uncountable nouns do not need plurals.
|Uncountable noun||Don’t say||Do say|
If talking about food, we usually don’t count it if it is generally on a plate, or generally served.
Example: I have some pizza (pizza is general, and uncountable)
However, we do count it (1, 2, 3 etc.) if the food makes different meals on different plates.
Example: We bought two pizzas. (the pizzas are clearly separate)
4. Test yourself
Click here to test your knowledge of this grammar point.