Narrative Perspectives

Methods of Persuasion

  • Ethos
    Persuading by using ethics.
  • Logos
    Persuading by using logic.
  • Pathos
    Persuading by using emotion.

Stylistic Techniques

  • Alliteration
    Using the same sound at the beginning of words within a sentence.
  • Analogy
    Using an idea people easily understand to help describe a difficult idea.
  • Anaphora
    Repeating the same words or phrases at the start of clauses.
  • Anthropomorphism
    Giving human characteristics and personalities to non-human things.
  • Chiasmus
    Repeating a clause but with the word order switched.
  • Consonance and Assonance
    Repeating consonant and vowel sounds throughout a sentence.
  • Epithet
    A widely-known nickname that can be used instead of a real name or noun.
  • Euphemism
    A replacement word or phrase used instead of a bad word.
  • Hyperbole
    Exaggerating to create an effect or feeling.
  • Imagery
    Using descriptive language to help readers imagine a scene.
  • Irony
    Language or situation that has a conclusion different from its intention.
  • Metaphor
    Using the characteristics of one object to describe another object.
  • Onomatopoeia
    Words that sound like sounds.
  • Oxymoron and Paradox
    Descriptions created by using words with opposite meanings.
  • Parallelism
    Sentences that have repeating structures to create balance.
  • Personification
    Giving human qualities to non-human things.
  • Rhetorical Questions
    Questions that are asked to make a point, rather than to get an answer.
  • Rhyme
    Repeating sounds at the end of words.
  • Sarcasm
    Insincerely saying the opposite of what is meant in order to insult.
  • Simile
    Using 'like' or 'as' to compare two things.


  • Awakening
    Discovering a true purpose that has been hidden inside.
  • Colonialism
    The interaction between colonisers and native populations.
  • Conspiracy
    Groups making secret plans to overthrow others.
  • Cruelty
    Unnecessarily wicked behaviour against another living thing.
  • Dystopia
    A world that resembles heaven, but is actually a hellish society.
  • Faith
    A belief in a higher power or destiny.
  • Filiation
    A child's duty to a parent.
  • Futility
    An awareness that actions are pointless and can change nothing.
  • Hubris
    Pride that leads to failure.
  • Injustice
    A person being treated unfairly by the law or authorities.
  • Jealousy
    Insecurity and anger that comes from feeling another person is taking something you love.
  • Madness
    Going crazy as one loses one's mind.
  • Morality
    Trying to do the right thing when given the choice between right and wrong.
  • Mortality
    An awareness that death will come to everyone.
  • Mourning
    The grief that comes after a loved one dies.
  • Post-colonialism
    How life changed for those people and places that were colonised.
  • Revenge
    Hurting someone because they hurt you.
  • Revolution
    The people rising up against authority.
  • Sibling Relationships
    The way in which brothers and sisters act with each other.
  • Social Alienation
    The sense of detachment from society.
  • The African American Voice
    The African American experience.
  • The Dangers of Science
    What happens when science is pushed too far.
  • The Female Voice
    Writing airing women's voices.
  • The Impossible Choice
    Having to choose between two terrible options.
  • The Victim’s Voice
    The voice of a person suffering injustice or persecution.
  • The Voyeur
    A person who secretly watches the life or actions of another.
  • Utopia
    A perfect society.
  • War
    Conflict between countries or groups.

Literary Movements

  • Gothic Literature
    Books with darker themes, including elements of unease, haunting, and the supernatural.
  • Middle English
    English between the 11th and 16th century.
  • Modernism
    A movement from the early 20th century that played with style, structures, and identity.
  • Old English
    Background on the English used between the 5th and 14th century.
  • The Beat Movement
    The counter-culture literary movement with a jazz style that rose in the 1950s.
  • The Elizabethan Period
    A golden age of English literature during the reign of Elizabeth I.
  • The Restoration and 18th Century
    A less famous time in English literature, when political upheaval changed society.
  • The Romantic Period
    A hugely influential time with poets whose names remain famous to this day.
  • The Victorian Era
    The rise of the novel during the age of the British Empire.

Narrative Techniques

Further Terminology