1. What is a fronted structure?
There are times (usually speaking) when basic grammar is changed so people can emphasise something.
To do this, the most important word or idea is moved to the front.
2. Examples of fronted structures
|Original sentence||Fronted structure and emphasis|
|I invited him||Now him I invited|
|I have never heard such a story||Never have I heard such a story!|
|He has not been under such pressure since his exams||Not since his exams has he been under such pressure.|
3. Cleft sentences
Cleft sentences are sentences with two parts, with one part being a reason / place / explanation.
Putting the reason / place / explanation first helps emphasise what is important.
4. Examples of cleft sentences
|It is his assistant who is coming.||The assistant, not the manager, is coming|
|What I need now is a stiff drink.||Need it now/first priority|
|The reason why I’m here is that I need to speak to you.||This reason is important|
|What I liked best was the acting.||What I liked, not what you liked|
|No, no. It was a car that my father gave me, not a card.|
(stresses the car)
|A car, c-a-r, not card.|
Change these sentences into fronted structures:
(i) There is a gun on the table (emphasise the gun)
(ii) They have been married for 60 years (emphasise the 60 years)
(iii) It was a bad idea to invite her ex-husband.