Grammar 3

The Future Tense: ‘will’ vs. ‘going to’

There are different ways to talk about the future.1. will2. (be) going to 1. Will vs. (be) going to ‘Will’ and ‘(be) going to’ are used for different future ideas. will (be) going to Predictions Predictions Decided right now Plans 100% sure Evidence think/hope/believe 2. Will – predictions Predictions are…

The Present Perfect Tense

1. When to use the present perfect tense The present perfect tense is for something that has happened between a time in the past and now. The action has finished. The time has not finished. 2. Examples of unfinished times Because the present perfect tense is between a time in…

The Present Perfect Tense + since/for

1. When to use the present perfect tense The present perfect tense is for something that has happened between a time in the past and now. The action has finished. The time has not finished. 2. Examples of unfinished times Because the present perfect tense is between a time in…

Which Person?

1. Ways to express ‘which person’ The ways to help people know which person: 1. The person/thing + ‘prepositional phrase’2. The person/thing + ‘participle phrase’ 2. How to use the prepositional phrase Prepositional phrases use prepositions. Prepositions include:on, in, under, next to, by, with To make a prepositional phrase:subject +…

‘Too many’ vs. ‘Too much’

‘Too many’ and ‘too much’ are used to say when there is more than a good amount. The amount is now a problem. 1. The difference between ‘too many’ and ‘too much’ ‘Too many’ is used for countable nouns. This means things you can count.Things you can count include apples,…

Comparisons

1. What are comparison? Comparisons are used to compare two things.That means saying one is bigger, smaller, fatter, etc. Comparison start with adjectives.How to make comparisons depends on how long the adjective is. 2. One syllable adjectives For adjectives that are one syllable, add ‘-er’.Sometimes small changes must be made…

Superlatives

1. What are superlatives? Superlatives are used to talk about ‘the most (adj.)’ in a group.This means the biggest, shortest, smallest, etc.. Superaltives start with adjectives.How to make superlatives depends on how long the adjective is. 2. One syllable adjectives For adjectives that are one syllable, use ‘the …est’.Sometimes small…

Ago/Before vs. In…(time)/After

A common mistake non-native English speakers make is confusing time phrases. 1. Ago vs. before ‘Ago’ measures time before now.‘Before’ measures time before another event. ‘Before’ must have two different events. Ago Before I came to Shanghai 5 years ago. I came to Shanghai 2 months before he did. He…

Similes

Similes are used to compare things. 1. How to make similes Similes can be made in 2 different ways:1) …as…as…2) …like… 2. As…as… As…as… is used for adjectives (tall, fat, red) and adverbs (quickly, well, badly, intelligently). It is made by:x is as (adj.) as (n.) orx (v.) as (adv.)…

The Past Continuous Tense

1. When to use the past continuous tense The past continuous tense talks about:1. an action happening in the past when another action happens2. an action happening at a particular time in the past3. two actions happening at the same time in the past 2. Two past events For the…

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