1. What is an adverbial clause?
Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses (not whole sentences) added to a main clause to give details about, or change, the verb.
Sentences can use more than one adverbial clause.
2. Different types of adverbial clauses
There are many different types of adverbial clause:
- time clauses
- reason clauses (because…)
- conditional clauses (if…)
- clauses of purpose (so…)
- concessive clauses (although…)
- place clauses
- clauses of manner (like…)
In most cases, the adverbial clause can go before or after the main clause.
3. Time clauses
Time clauses say when the main clause happened.
They use words like: before, after, when, while, during.
|Main clause||Time clause||Example sentence|
|I went to school||after I had eaten my breakfast||I went to school after I had eaten my breakfast.|
|They came to visit us||before they flew back||They came to visit us before they flew back.|
4. Reason clauses
Reason clauses say why the main clause happened.
They use words like: because, as, due to.
|Main clause||Reason clause||Example sentence|
|I went to school||because I had to take a test||I went to school because I had to take a test.|
|They came to visit us||as we hadn’t seen each other for a long time||They came to visit us as we hadn’t seen each other for a long time.|
5. Conditional clauses
Conditional clauses say that a clause happened if something happened.
They use words like: if, unless, should.
|Main clause||Conditional clause||Example sentence|
|I went to school||if it wasn’t snowing||If it wasn’t snowing I went to school.|
|They came to visit us||unless they were too busy||They came to visit us unless they were too busy.|
6. Clauses of purpose
Clauses of purpose say why someone did the main clause.
They use words like: so, in order to
|Main clause||Clause of purpose||Example sentence|
|I went to school||so I could hand back my books||I went to school so I could hand back my books.|
|They came to visit us||in order to give us our wedding present||They came to visit us in order to give us our wedding present.|
7. Concessive clauses
Concessive clauses say that a main clause happened even though something tried to stop it.
They use words like: although, even though, though, despite.
|Main clause||Concessive clause||Example sentence|
|I went to school||although I had a cold||Although I had a cold, I went to school.|
|They came to visit us||though they were very busy||Though they were very busy they came to visit us.|
8. Place clauses
Place clauses say where a main clause happened.
They use words like: wherever, everywhere, where, in, on, by.
|Main clause||Place cause||Example sentence|
|I went to school||wherever my family lived||Wherever my family lived, I went to school.|
|They came to visit us||everywhere that we lived||They came to visit us everywhere that we lived.|
9. Clauses of manner
Clauses of manner say how a main clause happened.
They use words like: how, like, as, the way.
|Main clause||Clause of manner||Example sentence|
|I went to school||the way I always did||I went to school the way I always did.|
|They came to visit us||like they always used to||They came to visit us like they always used to.|
1. Finish these sentences with an adverbial clause described in the parentheses:
(i) I played football (time clause)
(ii) My family went on holiday (clause of purpose)
(iii) My teacher punished students (conditional clause)
2. Add different kinds of adverbial clauses to the following main clauses:
(i) They play football in the park.
(ii) She cooked a beautiful dinner.
(iii) We watched TV.
(iv) The bike was stolen by a man.
(v) The shop will open.