小儿麻痹症是一种传染性的疾病,尤病毒引起,它会对肌肉,通常是腿部肌肉造成伤害。
Polio is an infectious disease, caused by a virus, that attacks the muscles, most commonly in the legs.

1952年,在匹兹堡大学工作的乔纳斯·索尔克开发出了一种疫苗。经过测试后由托马斯·弗朗西斯博士于1955年4月12日向世界宣布。
In 1952 Jonas Salk, working at the University of Pittsburgh, developed a vaccine. After tests it was announced to the world on April 12th 1955 by Dr Thomas Francis.

环境卫生改善,小儿麻痹症却增加 Sanitation improves, Polio increases

大多数的疾病会随着环境卫生的改善而减少,但小儿麻痹症却是一个例外。根据记载,早在埃及的时候,许多群体已经对小儿麻痹症有了一定的免疫。小儿麻痹症通常不会感染婴幼儿和那些到5岁时已经暴露并对小儿麻痹症免疫的孩子。
Most diseases decrease as sanitation gets better, but Polio was an exception. Noted as far back as Egyptian times, many communities had become fairly immune to Polio. Polio does not generally attack babies and infants and so many children had already become exposed and immune to polio by the time they reached 5 years old.

19世纪和20世纪污水处理的发展意味着更少的幼儿在小的时候感染小儿麻痹症。然而这却导致了小儿麻痹症在20世纪初猛增。
Developments in sewage treatment in the 19th and 20th century meant less infants met Polio at a young age. This led to a sudden increase in Polio at the beginning of the 20th century.

在1952年美国就有58000例案例,导致了3000例的死亡和超过21000例病人的瘫痪。
By 1952 the US alone had 58000 cases, resulting in over 3000 deaths a year and over 21000 people with some sort of paralysis.

索尔克的疫苗 Salk’s Vaccine

4月12日,乔纳斯·索尔克声称他已经研发出了小儿麻痹症疫苗。这个疫苗是通过给婴儿灭活的(死的)小儿麻痹症注射,以此来让他们免疫。
On April 12th Jonas Salk announced he had developed a vaccine for polio. This vaccine was created by giving infants an ‘inactivated’ (dead) polio injection, thus making them immune.

托马斯·弗朗西斯博士开始了历史上最大规模的医学试验,测试了美国44个洲的180万名儿童。
Dr Thomas Francis began the largest medical experiment in history, testing 1.8million children across 44 states of the US.

从1953年美国35000例下降到1961年的161例。
From 35 000 cases in the US in 1953, the number fell to 161 in 1961.

索尔克在一次访谈中引用了一句非常著名的话来形容他的疫苗:当他被问道为什么不申请专利来赚钱的时候,他回答说“你会给太阳申请专利吗?”
Salk made a famous quote in an interview about his vaccine: when asked why he had not patented to earn money, he replied ‘Would you patent the sun?’

改善 Improvements

1957年阿尔贝萨宾开始口服疫苗的试验。口服疫苗在1962年得到许可。
In 1957 Albert Sabin began trials of an oral vaccine. The oral vaccine was licenced in 1962.

口服疫苗通常是给一颗糖丸。
The oral vaccine was often given on a sugar cube.

现在许多发达国家给婴儿注射一系列小儿麻痹症疫苗。但并不推荐发达国家的成人注射因为他们可能已经遭遇过这个病毒,但允许第三世界或者发展中国家的成人注射。
Currently many developed countries give a series of polio vaccines to babies. It is not recommended to adults in developed countries because they have probably already encountered polio, but is given to adults in 3rd world or developing countries.

更大的成功和问题 Wider Success and Issues

小儿麻痹症疫苗有相当高的成功率。现在的问题是把疫苗推向世界。
The polio vaccine has a very high success rate. The issue now is getting the vaccine to the world.

世界卫生组织开始更佳广泛地推广小儿麻痹症疫苗。1988年全世界有350000例报道,到2012年只有223例。
The WHO began a widespread Polio vaccine programme after it was introduced. By 1988 there were 350 000 cases reported worldwide. By 2012 the number was 223.

1990年世界卫生组织相信已经有500000例病例被疫苗阻止。
In 1990 the WHO believed 500 000 cases of paralysis had been stopped by the vaccine.

1993年中国有八千万儿童在两天内接种,第二年仅有5例小儿麻痹症的报道。
In 1993 China immunized 80 million children in two days. The following year only 5 cases of Polio were reported.

小儿麻痹症疫苗仍是世界卫生组织疫苗接种名单上最重要的疫苗。
The Polio vaccination remains on the WHO’s most important vaccinations list.

罗纳德·里根宣布1985年5月6日为“乔纳斯索尔克日”。
Ronald Reagan announced May 6th 1985 to be ‘Jonas Salk Day’.