The Red Rose of the House of Lancaster and the White Rose of the House of York
The Red Rose of the House of Lancaster and the White Rose of the House of York

The War of the Roses was a series of battles between two competing houses for the crown of England. The House of Lancaster (represented by a red rose) and the House of York (represented by a white rose) fought until a third house, the House of Tudor, eventually took control.
玫瑰战争的控制是一系列的争斗两个相互竞争的房子之间为英国的桂冠。兰开斯特的房子(由红色玫瑰代表)和约克家族(由白玫瑰代表)战斗,直到第三宫,都铎家族最终控制了。

The Split of the House of Plantagenet 金雀花王朝的分裂

England had been run by the House of Plantagenet since the 12th century. However in-fighting, exile and The Hundred Years War split the family.
英格兰已被金雀花王朝自12世纪上运行。然而,在战斗,流放和百年战争分裂的家庭。

The House of Lancaster and the House of York were offshoots of the Plantagenets, linked by sons of Edward III (who had 13 children).
兰开斯特大厦和纽约的房子是在金雀花的分支,由爱德华三世(谁了13名儿童)的儿子联系。

When Henry IV (of the Lancasters) took the throne by force it ended the direct line of Plantagenets.
当亨利四世(的兰开斯特)强行登上了王位它结束金雀花的直达线路。

The House of Lancaster in Control 兰开斯特的控制众议院

When Henry IV took control, the House of York did not resist. The court was firmly with the House of Lancaster.
当亨利四世接管,纽约的房子并没有反抗。法院坚定地与兰开斯特的房子。

After Henry IV died he was succeeded by Henry V, a popular king due to his victories against France. Again, the House of York did not raise concern.
之后亨利四世去世后,他被亨利五世,人气王,由于他对法国的胜利成功。此外,纽约的房子并没有引起关注。

However, when Henry VI came to power, problems emerged. Henry VI was seen as a weak leader, prone to madness, and his wife Margaret of Anjou was overly ambitious.
然而,当亨利六世上台后,问题出现了。亨利六世被看作是一个软弱的领导人,容易出现疯狂,和他的妻子安茹的玛格丽特过于雄心勃勃。

When Henry VI fell into insanity, Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick nicknamed ‘The Kingmaker’ , put Richard, Duke of York, in charge. Henry VI, however, recovered, and began (with his wife) to seek a reassertion of power.
当亨利六世陷入疯狂,理查德内维尔,华威绰号“信星’伯爵,把理查,约克公爵,负责。亨利六世,但是,恢复,并开始(与妻子)寻求权力的重新肯定。

The War of the Roses Begins 玫瑰战争开始

The War of the Roses
The War of the Roses

The first major battle between the two houses occurred at St. Albans on May 22 1455. The House of York won. There followed a 4 year truce.
两个房子之间的第一次重大战役在圣奥尔本斯发生在5月22日1455约克大厦赢了。随后有4年休战。

Fighting began again in 1459, and although the House of York won the first battle, they were pushed back in October. The Earl of Warwick rebuilt forces whilst in France, and in 1460 the House of York returned and won the Battle of Northampton.
战斗在1459又开始了,虽然约克家族首战告捷,他们10月份推后。沃里克伯爵重建的力量,而在法国,并在1460回来,赢得北安普顿之战约克家族。

The House of York agreed they would take the throne once Henry VI died. This meant Henry’s son, Prince Edward, would not be king. Edward and Margaret objected.
纽约的众议院同意,他们将登上王位,一旦亨利六世去世。这意味着亨利的儿子,太子,岂不是国王。爱德华和玛格丽特反对。

A Second Wave of Fighting 战斗的第二次浪潮

The House of Lancaster rebuilt its forces in the north of England. In December 1460 they surprised the House of York. Richard, The Duke of York was beheaded, along with his second son, Edmund at the Battle of Wakefield. The House of Lancaster marched towards London.
兰开斯特的家在英格兰北部重建其军队。 1460年12月,他们惊讶的约克家族。理查德,约克公爵被斩首,他的第二个儿子,埃德蒙在韦克菲尔德战役一起。兰开斯特大厦游行往伦敦。

Richard’s eldest son, also named Edward, took charge of the House of York. He also took his army to London, arriving before Margaret. He was proclaimed King Edward IV and began to chase Margaret back north.
理查德的大儿子,也叫爱德华,接管了纽约的房子。他还带着他的军队到伦敦,玛格丽特之前抵达。他被宣布爱德华四世国王,并开始追逐玛格丽特北返。

In March 1461 Edward IV beat the Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Towton. It was a crushing victory, and remains the bloodiest battle ever fought on British soil. 30000 people died (20000 from the House of Lancaster).
1461年三月爱德华四世在Towton战役击败兰开斯特的力量。这是一场压倒性胜利,并保持在英国的土地曾经战斗最血腥的战斗。 30000人死亡(20000兰开斯特的房子)。

Edward vs. The Kingmaker 爱德华主场迎战信星

After the defeat at Towton, the Lancastrian forces returned to the north to regroup. There were efforts to revolt, but in 1464 Edward crushed the forces again, capturing Henry VI.
在Towton战败后,兰开斯特军队回到北重新集结。有努力反抗,但在1464爱德华再次粉碎了力量,捕捉亨利六世。

Edward, however, made enemies in his own house when he began to favour those connected to his wife, Elizabeth Woodville. One of those enemies was Richard Neville, Duke of Warwick, ‘The Kingmaker’ – the man who had helped his father become king.
爱德华,但是,在自己的房子做敌人,当他开始青睐那些连接到他的妻子,伊丽莎白·伍德维尔。其中的一个敌人是理查德·内维尔,杜克大学华威“的信星’ – 谁曾帮助父亲的男人成为国王。

At first Warwick tried to have Edward replaced by his younger brother, George, Duke of Clarence. When this failed, Warwick remarkably swapped sides. He tried to get Henry VI returned to the throne.
起初华威尝试已经爱德华取代了他的弟弟乔治,克拉伦斯公爵。当这种失败,华威显着换边。他试图让亨利六世回到了宝座。

Edward and Warwick were now at war. Yet Edward would cement his power in crushing style: he won the Battle of Barnet in April 1471, where Warwick was killed. In May 1471 he won the Battle of Tewkesbury, executing Henry VI’s son Prince Edward in the process.

爱德华和沃里克现在是处于战争状态。然而,爱德华将巩固他的权力在破碎的风格:他赢得了巴尼特战役在1471年4月,在华威被打死。在1471年5月,他赢得蒂克斯伯里战役,在这个过程中执行亨利六世的儿子爱德华王子。

A few days later he had Henry VI executed in the Tower of London, finishing the House of Lancaster’s direct line to the throne.
几天后,他不得不亨利六世在伦敦塔执行,整理兰开斯特的直接行王位之家。

The Final Winner: The House of Tudor 最后的赢家:都铎风格的房子

The Battle of Bosworth, by Graham Turner
The Battle of Bosworth, by Graham Turner

With the House of Lancaster seemingly beaten, a time of relative peace followed. Edward IV, however, died in 1483.
随着兰开斯特的屋漏偏逢殴打,相对和平的时期紧随其后。爱德华四世,不过,死在1483。

The heirs were still children and Edward’s brother, Richard of Gloucester, saw an opportunity. Although the eldest boy Edward was named king (Edward V) Richard claimed their father’s marriage had not been legitimate. He put the children in the Tower of London, and they were never seen again.
继承人仍然儿童和爱德华的弟弟格洛斯特理查德,看到了商机。虽然大儿子爱德华被命名为国王(爱德华五世)理查德声称他们的父亲的婚姻一直没合法的。他把在伦敦塔的孩子,他们从来没有出现过。

Meanwhile Henry Tudor, a distant cousin of the Lancaster family, took on the Lancaster’s claim to the throne. He used his family connection and the hatred of Richard to build an army.
同时亨利·都铎,兰开斯特家族的一个远房亲戚,发生在兰开斯特的说法王位。他用他的家庭连接和理查德的仇恨建立一个军队。

Henry’s army fought Richard at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. Henry won, making him King Henry VII. To cement the Tudor’s claim he married Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth of York.
亨利的军队在博斯沃思在1485亨利赢得战役战斗理查德,这使他国王亨利七世。水泥都铎声称他娶爱德华四世的女儿,约克的伊丽莎白。

With the two houses combined, the Tudors took control of England.
随着两院合并,都铎王朝接过玫瑰英格兰。

Battle of Bosworth Field, by Mark Churms
Battle of Bosworth Field, by Mark Churms

Cleaning Up the Dispute 清理争议

The Tudor Rose Combined the Emblems of the Lancasters and Yorks
The Tudor Rose Combined the Emblems of the Lancasters and Yorks

The Tudors now ruled England. There were, however, some loose-ends to tie up.
都铎王朝统治,现在是英格兰。然而有一些宽松的两端绑。

A man claiming to be Edward, Earl of Warwick and the son of George (Edward IV’s brother) was found to be a pretender called Lambert Simnel. A man called Richard Simon wanted to be another kingmaker after seeing a likeness between Simnel and Edward IV’s children.
一名自称是爱德华,沃里克伯爵和乔治的儿子(爱德华四世的弟弟)被发现是一个叫兰伯特重油水果伪装。叫理查德·西蒙一个人想成为另一个点石成金看到重油水果和爱德华四世的孩子之间的相似了。

Another man named Perkin Warbeck claimed to be the son of Edward V (the boy king who disappeared in the Tower of London). He was imprisoned and executed.
另一个名为珀沃贝克的人自称是爱德华五世(男孩国王谁在伦敦塔消失)的儿子。他被囚禁和处决。