The Battle of Hastings in 1066, by Francois Hippolyte Debon
The Battle of Hastings in 1066, by Francois Hippolyte Debon (1845)

黑斯廷战役发生于1066年10月14日。入侵的法国-诺曼军队与英国军队交战,最终诺曼军获胜,并且控制英格兰。
The Battle of Hastings happened on October 14th 1066. It was between the invading French-Norman army and the English army. The French-Norman army won and took control of England.

对英国权利的争夺 A Struggle for Power in England

1066年1月,忏悔者爱德华逝世,未留下子嗣。于是,下面这些人开始觊觎王位:
When King Edward the Confessor died in January 1066 he did not leave a child. This meant several people believed they could become King of England, including:

    哈罗德·葛温森,威塞克斯伯爵——富有又有权势的贵族,爱德华的敌人,葛德文的儿子。
    Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex – a rich and powerful aristocrat who was the son of Edward’s opponent, Godwin.

    托斯提哥·葛温森——哈罗德的弟弟,当时正被流放。
    Tostig Godwinson – Harold’s brother who was in exile.

    诺曼底公爵威廉二世(后又称作征服者威廉)——诺曼领袖,1042年曾帮助爱德华称王,为了阻止葛温森兄弟称王,宣称爱德华曾承诺其王位。
    Duke William II of Normandy (later known as ‘William the Conqueror’) – leader of the Normans who had helped Edward become king in 1042 and claimed Edward promised him the throne (in order to stop the Godwin getting it).

    挪威国王哈拉尔德三世(又被称作哈拉尔德·哈德拉达)——哈拉尔德宣称英格兰先王哈德克努特及挪威先王马格努斯一世,曾答应,如果英国或者挪威的王位没有继承人,另一个国家的人可以继承王位。
    Harald III of Norway (also known as Harald Hardrada) – Harald claimed the earlier kings of England and Norway – Harthacanute and Magnus I – had agreed that if a there was no heir in England or Norway the other country would inherit it.

哈罗德被任命为国王后,托斯提哥,威廉和哈拉尔德联合集结军队,以夺取王位。
Harold was named king. Tostig, William and Harald put armies together to take the crown.

Tostig Attacks First 托斯提哥首先发起攻击

对哈罗德统治的攻击首先来自于他的弟弟,托斯提哥,之前他一直在佛兰德斯流放。托斯提哥在英格兰东南部取得一些胜利,但是哈罗德的军队迅速击退了托斯提哥,他不得不移师苏格兰,以集结更多军队。
The first attack on Harold’s reign came from his own brother, Tostig, who had been exiled in Flanders. Tostig had some success in the south-east of England, but Harold’s army quickly forced Tostig out. Tostig moved to Scotland to get more men.


哈罗德静候;哈德拉达与托斯提哥联合 Harold’s Army Sits and Waits; Hardrada and Tostig Unite


击退托斯提哥后,哈罗德认为威廉会对其发动攻击,于是集结人马在英格兰南部等候威廉军队。他招募更多人加入军队,主要是农民和水手。但是威廉并没有发动攻击,或许是因为天气不好,或许是因为其尚未准备充分。到九月,哈罗德新招募的人手必须返乡做工,9月8日,哈罗德允许他们离开军队。

After beating Tostig, Harold’s men stayed in the south of England awaiting a suspected attack from William. He recruited more men – mostly farmers and sailors – but William did not come (either because of bad weather or needing more preparation). By September Harold’s new men needed to go back to their work. Harold let them leave his army on September 8th.

同一时间,哈拉尔德·哈德拉达率领一万五千大军抵达英格兰东北部。托斯提哥的军队也加入哈拉尔德军队。两军会合,一路南下朝约克进发。
At almost the same time Harald Hardrada arrived in the north east of England with 15000 men. Tostig and his army also joined this force. The army made its way south to York.

哈罗德——随着新招募的农民和水手离开军队——移师北上,迎接侵略者。9月25日,哈罗德的军队在斯坦姆福德桥战役中击败哈拉尔德·哈德拉和托斯提哥,两人均战亡。但是哈罗德的军队也蒙受巨大损失。
Harold – without his farmers and sailors – moved his army north to meet the invaders. On September 25th Harold’s army beat Harald Hardrada and Tostig in the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Both Hardrada and Tostig were killed, but Harold’s army suffered large losses.

诺曼的征服 The Norman Conquest

哈罗德的军队虽然取得胜利,却损失惨重,不得不在英格兰东北部休整,使得东南部门户大开。
Harold’s army had suffered badly during their victory, and was now in the north-east of England. This left the south-east wide open.

9月28日,威廉率领7000人,登陆英格兰东南部,此后他们一路北上,夺取土地,直到黑斯廷,并在那里重编军队。
On September 28th William landed in the south-east of England with approximately 7000 troups. He marched north, taking land, until reaching Hastings where he stopped in order to regroup.

10月13日,哈罗德的军队也抵达黑斯廷,准备投入他们今年的第三场战役。
On October 13th Harold’s army arrived for their third battle of the year.

战役 The Battle

Death of Harold at the Battle of Hastings 1066 (from The World's Book of Knowledge and Universal Educator (Boston: J.R. Spaulding & Co., 1901))
Death of Harold at the Battle of Hastings 1066 (from The World’s Book of Knowledge and Universal Educator (Boston: J.R. Spaulding & Co., 1901))

虽然被称为黑斯廷战役,实际战场位于距黑斯廷7英里的地方,现在那里是一个叫“战役”的小镇。无人知晓两军抵达战场的准确时间(不是早晨就是前一天的晚上);也没有人知道哈罗德的军队到底有多少人——英国人的史料记载人数远远低于挪威的记载。一些历史学家说,可能是7000人左右。
Although it is known as the Battle of Hastings, the battle happened 7 miles outside Hastings (where a town named Battle now exists). It is not clear exactly what time each army arrived at the battlefield – either the morning or the night before. It is also not known exactly how many men Harold had left in his army – English accounts put the number as low, whilst Normans say it was much higher. Some historians say it was probably around 7000.

战役中使用了一种著名的战术“假装逃跑”。诺曼军队看似逃跑,实则伏击追来的英国军队。无论诺曼军是故意这么做,还是巧合,总之,这种战术很奏效。傍晚时分,哈罗德战亡,诺曼军随即取得胜利。
A famous tactic used called ‘feigned flight’ was used, in which the Normans pretended to run away, only to ambush the chasing English. It is not clear whether this was planned or by accident, but it worked: in the late afternoon Harold died. Soon after, the Normans won the battle.

贝叶挂毯 The Bayeux Tapestry

The Bayeux Tapestry
The Bayeux Tapestry

在法国的贝叶,有一幅挂毯,再现了黑斯廷战役的50个场景。
A tapestry exists showing around 50 scenes from the battle. It currently hangs in Bayeux, France.

没有人知道这幅挂毯于什么年代织成。人们认为这是1070年代的产物。
It is not known exactly when the tapestry was made, but it is thought to come from the 1070s.

最著名的场景就是哈罗德战死,图上画着很多士兵,其中一人的眼中插着一支箭(虽然没有人知道画中哪个人是哈罗德,但传说哈罗德因为被箭刺穿眼睛而死)。
The most famous scene in the tapestry is the death of Harold: it shows a lot of soldiers and a man with an arrow in his eye (although nobody knows which man is Harold, legend now says Harold died by an arrow to the eye).

Norman Victory and its Consequences 诺曼的胜利及影响

黑斯廷战役后还陆续发生一些小战役,哈罗德的军队垂死挣扎,试图任命一位新国王。无奈事已成定局,征服者威廉夺取了英格兰,1066年圣诞节,他被任命为英格兰国王。
There were a few smaller battles after the Battle of Hastings – and Harold’s army desperately tried to have another king named – but the momentum was already established: William the Conqueror took England. He was named King of England on Christmas Day 1066.

1154年,因为在法国本土失利,诺曼家族倒台,他们在英国的统治就此结束。
The Norman House ruled England until 1154, when events back in France saw it collapse.

法国国王威廉的 统治,拉近了英法两国的距离,并且使英国脱离斯堪的纳维亚半岛。这场战役也对英国语言文字产生了影响:威廉要求法语作为英国的官方语言,为此,英语吸纳了大约10000法语单词,这些单词中的3/4至今仍被使用(人们估计,现在就算一个会说英语的人从来没有学过法语,他大概认识15000个法语单词)。
The arrival of a French king in England brought the two countries closer, and moved England away from Scandinavia. It also changed the language: William made French the language of the English court, and is is guessed 10000 French words entered the English language. 3/4 of those words still exist (even now it is guessed that an English speaker who has never studied French already knows 15000 French words).

Harold II, by James E. Doyle (1864)
Harold II, by James E. Doyle (1864)