Charles Darwin, Naturalist
Charles Darwin, Naturalist

When did he live? 他生活在什么年代?

Charles Darwin was born on 12 February 1809. He died on 19 April 1882.
查尔斯·达尔文,1809年2月12日出生,1882年4月19日逝世

A Young Charles Darwin
A Young Charles Darwin

Why is he famous? 他为什么出名?

Charles Darwin was a naturalist, although he is often called a biologist.
查尔斯·达尔文是博物学家,尽管人们常常成他为生物学家。

His 5-year voyage aboard the boat ‘Beagle’ – upon which his job was to collect animal, plant and fossil specimens – led to him publishing a book called ‘On the Origin of Species’. It was in this book that he suggested the theory of evolution.
5岁时,他随“猎犬号”远洋,他在船上的工作是收集动植物及化石标本,这段经历最终促成他出版了《物种起源》一书,在书中提出了进化论。

Part of the theory of evolution is the idea of ‘natural selection’: species change because of their environmental needs, and the strongest members of a species survive while the weaker ones disappear over time.
进化论的思想之一是”自然选择“:物种的变异是为了适应环境,随着时间的推移,强者生存而弱者淘汰。

Thomas Henry Huxley used Darwin’s theory to argue that modern people evolved from earlier types of humans, and were related to apes. Darwin then expanded this theory in his next book, The Descent of Man’.
托马斯.亨利.赫胥黎运用达尔文进化论争论现代人是由早起的人类进化来的,并且与猿相似。达尔文后来扩展了它的理论在他的新书《《人类的由来》》。

Although he is famous for suggesting that humans evolved from apes, his research was not only about humans. He studied many species, drawing timelines as to how they may have evolved.
尽管他因提出人类由猿进化而来而出名,他的研究不止于人类,他研究了许多物种,并绘制了进化时间轴。

Origin of Species
Origin of Species (1859)

What was his mark on history? 他的历史功绩是什么?

Darwin’s mark on history is huge: his theories (and new versions of them) are taught in schools all over the world. Many do not believe a better theory on human or natural development has been made.
达尔文的历史功绩巨大,他的一系列理论(以及他们的新的发展),在全世界的学校教授。很多人认为,这是迄今为止最好的人类及自然发展的理论。

Darwin was such an important figure that, when he died, he was given a large ceremonial funeral. He is buried close to Isaac Newton in the famous Westminster Abbey.
由于达尔文的巨大贡献,他去世时,为他举办了盛大的葬礼。他被葬在著名的威斯敏斯特大教堂, 与牛顿墓比邻。

In 2002, Charles Darwin was voted the 4th ‘Greatest Briton’ of all time.
2002年,达尔文在“史上最伟大的英国人”投票中名列第四。

Notes 笔记

Although Darwin did well at his studies he was often bored by the theories.
尽管达尔文在理论研究上有很深的造诣,他却认为理论非常枯燥。

Originally Darwin’s father wanted him to work in medicine. It was Darwin’s uncle that persuaded his father to allow Charles to join the Beagle voyage.
最早,达尔文的父亲希望他从事医药行业。达尔文的叔叔说服了他父亲,让他登上”猎狗号“。

Darwin’s place on the HMS Beagle was not a significant role, merely as a collector of specimens. However, from collecting these specimens he was able to create his theory of evolution.
尽管达尔文在”猎狗号“上的工作无足轻重,仅仅是收集标本。然后,正是通过收集标本,他提出了进化论。

The Beagle’s voyage – and Darwin’s ideas – progressed the most when they were in South America and (most famously) in the Galapagos Islands. It was here that Darwin began to note that some birds and turtles on the islands were only slightly different from the South American mainland. This led him to think that animals changed because of where they lived. Coupled with the fossils he had seen, he was able to draw out evolutionary timelines.
“猎狗号”的航行,以及达尔文的思想,在南美洲,以及加拉帕戈斯群岛(最著名的)取得了最重要的进展。在那里,达尔文开始注意到,一些生活在岛上的鸟类和海龟与生活在南美洲大陆的有细小的差别。这促使他开始思考,随着生活地点不同,动物会发生变异。受到他所见过的化石的启发,达尔文绘制出了进化时间轴。

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is fought by those who believe in Creationism, the idea that God created the world and mankind. In some areas of the world the choice between teaching Evolution or Creationism in schools remains controversial.
达尔文的进化论受到创造论者的攻击。他们相信上帝创造了世界和人类。在世界上某些地方,对于在学校教授进化论还是创造论仍存在争议。

Some have argued Darwin’s theory of ‘natural selection’ excuses racism, sexism, and the idea of superiority over the uncivilized ‘savage’. However, Darwin himself did not believe that people were born different, but society and environment created stronger groups. Indeed, he was against the idea of ‘ranking’ people.
有些人辩称,达尔文的“自然选择论”成为种族主义者、性别歧视主义者以及“我们高于未开化的野人一等”思想的借口。然而,达尔文自己却并不认为人生来是有差别的。但是社会和环境早就“强者人群”。 他是实实在在地反对人分三六九等的想法。