The Rump Parliament
The Rump Parliament

In January 1649 the British king Charles I was found guilty of treason and executed. For the next 11 years (1649 to 1660) the country operated as a republic. The time was divided into two parts – The Rump Parliament (1649-1653), and the Protectorate (1653-1660) – and ended with the restoration of the royal family and coronation of Charles II (Charles I’s son) in 1961.
1649年一月,英国查理一世被认定犯有叛国罪和执行。对于未来11年(1649年至1660年),全国经营作为一个共和国。时间分为两部分 – 残缺议会(1649至1653年),以及受保护(1653-1660) – 和王室在1961年恢复和加冕查理二世(查理一世的儿子)的结束。

The Tide Turns Against Charles I: The King vs. Parliament 浪潮转而反对查理一世:国王与议会

King Charles I was a widely unpopular king, perceived as believing that being king was a god-given right. Charles used his powers to harness taxes, ignore parliament, and crush dissent. Many people saw him as a tyrant. Negotiations to change the status of the monarchy fell apart and many in The House of Commons (the main part of Britain’s two house parliamentary system) lost faith in the king.
国王查尔斯我是一个不受欢迎的广王,认为认为是国王是一个难得的权利。查尔斯用自己的力量来利用税收,无视国会和镇压异见。很多人都认为他是一个暴君。谈判来改变君主制的地位土崩瓦解,许多在下议院(英国最大的两家房屋议会制度的主要部分)在国王失去了信心。

Sensing a lack of change, the army make plans for Charles’s removal. The first step was to remove the king’s supporters from the House of Commons. On December 6th 1648 the leader of the ‘New Model Army’, Colonel Thomas Pride, began to forcibly remove pro-royalty supporters from the House of Commons, and by December 12th 231 of the 471 members of parliament had been barred from entering the House, with 45 of them temporarily detained. ‘Pride’s Purge’ got what it wanted: a new smaller ‘Rump Parliament’ (as opposed to the previous larger ‘Long Parliament’) of around 200 MPs was created.
感应缺乏变化,军队做了查尔斯的拆除计划。第一步是从下议院除去国王的支持者。 12月6日1648年“新模范军”,上校托马斯傲慢的领导人,开始强行从下议院除去亲皇室支持者,以及12月12日议会的471成员231已经进入众议院禁止,其中有45暂扣。 “傲慢的清除”得到了它想要的东西:一个新的更小的“残缺议会”大约200名国会议员被创造的(相对于以前的更大的“长期议会”)。

The army’s chief, Sir Thomas Fairfax, was actually quite removed from this event, but his second-in-command Oliver Cromwell (who was also an MP for Cambridge at the time) was seen as one of the possible instigators for the purge and would go on to take a major role in the republic.
军队的首领托马斯·费尔法克斯爵士,实际上是相当从这个事件中删除,但他的第二号命令奥利弗·克伦威尔(谁也是剑桥大学国会议员的时间)被视为可能的煽动者之一清除,并会继续采取在共和国的重大作用。

The Vote 表决

‘Pride’s Purge’ had resulted in the smaller ‘Rump Parliament’ of about 200 MPs and a far higher success of removing the king: 83 of the MPs had only been allowed to return if they promised to remove their support of a pro-monarchy bill, 86 of the MPs abstained from attending the House altogether, and the attendance had fallen from over 400 to around 70. This meant the known 71 pro-army MPs had achieved far greater power.
“傲慢的清洗”已导致约200名议员较小的“残缺议会”和去除王远更高的成功:国会议员的83只被允许返回,如果他们答应以消除他们的支持亲君主制法案,国会议员86从完全出席众议院投了弃权票,并出席了由400至约70。这意味着已知的71亲军的国会议员已经取得了更大的动力下降。

On January 4th 1649 a vote was held which agreed to try the king for treason. It is believed only 46 MPs turned up, with the doors locked to stop others attending, and only 26 voted. Nonetheless, the vote passed. Although the House of Lords rejected the idea, the House of Commons wrote their own act. On January 20th the king’s trial began, although only 68 of the 135 judges turned up (the others did not feel comfortable being involved in ‘regicide’). As the king refused to speak (he did acknowledge the trial as legal), his plea was presumed to be guilty. On January 27th he was found guilty and sentenced to death.
在1649年1月4日投票举行后者同意尝试叛逆王。据信只有46名议员止跌回升,与大门紧锁,以阻止他人参加,只有26投了反对票。尽管如此,票通过。尽管上议院拒绝了这一提议,下议院写自己的行为。 1月20日国王的审判开始了,虽然只有135名法官68转起来了(别人没感觉舒服被卷入“弑君”)。由于国王拒绝说话(他也承认审判法律),他的请求被推定为有罪。 1月27日,他被判有罪,并被判处死刑。

The king was executed on January 30th. The House of Lords was abolished on February 6th, and the monarchy on February 7th. A new ‘Council of State’, made of the Rump Parliament, was established on February 14th.
王于1月30日执行。上议院被废除了2月6日和2月7日君主制。新的“国务委员会”,取得了残缺议会,成立于2月14日。

The Rump Parliament Takes Control 臀部议会接管控制

Charles I’s son, also named Charles, was named King in Scotland, but England’s parliament banned the new king. In 1651 Charles’s forces were beaten by Cromwell’s army (Cromwell having left the Parliament to return to soldiering), and Charles escaped to Europe for the next 9 years.
查理一世的儿子,也叫查尔斯,被任命为国王在苏格兰,但英国的议会取缔了新的王者。 1651年查尔斯的军队被克伦威尔的军队打败(不舍克伦威尔议会返回当兵)和查尔斯逃到欧洲在未来9年。

With no royal family The Rump Parliament ran England, Scotland and Ireland. This period is now known as the ‘English Interregnum’ or ‘English Commonwealth’.
由于没有王室的残缺议会跑了英格兰,苏格兰和爱尔兰。这一时期是现在被称为“英国空位”或“英联邦”。

The Protectorate 保护地

Fearing that the Rump Parliament was swaying back to allowing the monarchy, Cromwell returned to the House seeking change. Having stood up and insulted a few members of the House, he then demanded a group of soldiers take away the speaker’s mace (the sign of power). He and his soldiers then dissolved the Parliament by force. A new religious parliament named ‘The Barebones Parliament (after member Praise-God Barebone) was installed to think of a new system.
由于担心臀部议会摇曳回让君主制,克伦威尔回到家里谋变。说完站起身来,侮辱了众议院少数成员,他随后要求一群士兵带走扬声器的权杖(权力的符号)。然后,他和他的士兵强行解散议会。安装名为“准系统议会(成员赞美神准系统后)一个新的宗教议会认为一个新的体系。

The new system was a ‘Protectorate’, with Cromwell named ‘Lord Protectorate’ for life. Cromwell’s rule was seen as tough, and he wanted to make a strong change away from the royal family. Cromwell banned Christmas and other forms of entertainment, thinking they were arrogant or represented the frivolity of the king. However many people felt Cromwell – who regally signed his named ‘Oliver P’ (‘P’ standing for ‘protectorate’) and was addressed as ‘His Highness’ was not a change, but a man who had simply made himself a new king.
新系统是一个“受保护”,与克伦威尔命名为’主受保护“的生活。克伦威尔的统治被视为强硬,他想做出有力改变了来自皇室之遥。克伦威尔禁止圣诞节和其他形式的娱乐,以为他们是傲慢或代表国王的轻浮。然而,许多人认为克伦威尔 – 谁郑重地签下了自己的名为“奥利弗P’(’P’站立’保护国”),并称呼为“殿下”不是改变,而是一个人谁了只是做了自己一个新的国王。

The Republic Ends 共和国完

The republic began to fail after Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and left his son Richard in charge.
民国开始失败后,奥利弗·克伦威尔在1658年去世,留给他的儿子理查德负责。

Charles’s supporters saw a chance to bring him back from Europe and make a new king. Richard Cromwell did not have the same control over Parliament, and Charles’s supporters began to gain more influence.
查尔斯的支持者看到了一个机会,把他从欧洲回来,并作出新的国王。理查德·克伦威尔没有在议会相同的控制,和查尔斯的支持者开始获得更大的影响力。

In 1660 Parliament brought the monarchy back. It also declared that Charles II had been king since his father’s death, and that the republic had never happened.
1660年议会所带来的君主制回来。它还宣称,查尔斯二世以来他的父亲去世的国王,那共和国从未发生过。

Further royalist parliaments helped cement Charles II’s place as king. The Cromwell era was finished quickly.
另外保皇议会帮助水泥查理二世的地方为王。克伦威尔时代很快就结束了。

Historians generally believe the people were happy to have the new king after the major changes and Cromwell’s hard rules. However, Cromwell and the idea of a republic are still popular today: in 2002 Cromwell was named the 10th Greatest Briton in History in a national vote.
历史学家普遍认为的人都高兴有后的主要变化和克伦威尔的硬规则的新国王。 2002年克伦威尔被评为全国投票历史上的第10个最伟大的英国人:然而,克伦威尔和共和的思想今天仍然流行。