Henry VIII, King of England
Henry VIII, King of England

When did he live? 他生活在什么年代?

Henry Tudor was born on June 28th 1491. He died on January 28th 1547.
亨利·都铎出生于1491年6月28日,于1547年1月28日去世。

Why is he famous? 为什么他很有名?

Henry Tudor became King Henry VIII on April 21st 1509. He remained king until his death.
亨利·都铎在1509年4月21日成为了国王亨利八世,一直到他去世。

During his reign he famously had six wives, two of whom he had executed.
在他统治的年代,他以娶有6个老婆闻名,其中2个还被他斩首。

It was Henry who separated the Church of England from Rome, a political move that made Henry’s position stronger and changed British society. In order to reinforce his authority a purge of Catholics and enemies of the Tudors began – Henry and his daughter Elizabeth’s reigns are both famous for executions.
是亨利将英格兰的教堂和罗马的区别开来,这一政治举动也让亨利的地位更加稳固,同时也改变了英国社会。为了巩固自己的权威,亨利开展了清除天主教徒和敌人的行动,亨利和他的女儿伊丽莎白的统治都以其残忍的处决闻名。

A Young Henry VIII
A Young Henry VIII

What is his mark on history? 他在历史上的主要地位是怎么样的?

Although the execution of his wives is more famous, it is the ending of his first marriage in divorce (because his wife could not produce a son) that significantly changed British history. When the Catholic Church refused to support the king divorcing, Henry – who was already annoyed by the Pope’s influence in the country – began removing the Vatican’s supporters from powerful positions in England. Finally he separated the Church of England from the Vatican, made himself its leader, and began to purge of Catholic enemies that lasted through his and his daughter’s reigns.
虽然处决自己的妻子更著名,但是亨利八世的第一次婚姻的破裂(因为她的妻子没有生儿子)才真正意义上改变了英国历史。当时天主教派拒绝支持他离婚,之前已经对教皇在国内的影响感到反感的亨利,随即开始将梵蒂冈的支持者们从英国政坛的重要位置移除,最后他中断了英国教堂和梵蒂冈的关系,自己成为了教会领袖,并继续在自己和女儿执政的时期铲除天主教异己。

To this day the Church of England remains separate, and the UK has generally been outside the Vatican’s influence.
直到今天,英国教会仍然分离,不受梵蒂冈的影响。

A Satirical Drawing of Henry VIII Standing on the Pope Clement VII
A Satirical Drawing of Henry VIII Standing on the Pope Clement VII

Notes 备注

Henry was a larger-than-life character, eating well, used to getting what he wanted, and happy to execute or exile those who got in his way.
亨利是一个富有英雄色彩的人物,喜欢吃美食,曾经为所欲为,随时可以处决或者放逐那些挡他道的人。

Having agreed to marry Anne of Cleaves without having met her, Henry famously called her the ‘Flanders Mare’ (i.e. a Belgian horse). Anne had no disagreements about having the wedding annulled 5 months later.
在没有见过真人便答应娶安妮克利夫斯,亨利称她为Flanders Mare(比利时马);安妮没有答应婚事,五个月后便取消了婚礼。

Henry had an affair with Mary Boleyn, Anne Boleyn’s sister, before marrying Anne (Anne would later be the first wife he executed). This story became the hit book and movie, ‘The Other Boleyn Girl’.
亨利在和安妮·博林结婚前,就和她的妹妹玛丽·博林有私情(安妮博林也是第一个被亨利处决的妻子),这个故事也被改编成了畅销书籍和电影《鸠占鹊巢》。

Many people believe that Henry VIII looks like the actor Charles Laughton, who played him in a 1933 film.
很多人都认为亨利八世张的和演员查尔斯·劳顿很像,后者在1933年的电影里扮演了亨利八世。