The Past Perfect Tense

The past perfect is for a past that has happened before another past.

had + p.p. (+ past tense event)

– example

The bell had rung by the time Jimmy got to school.
(first event: the bell rings
second event: Jimmy gets to school)

The Passive Voice

To make the passive voice:
be (in correct tense) + p.p.

In the past perfect, this is:
had been + p.p. (+ past tense event)

– example

The bell had been rung by the time Jimmy got to school.

Examples of the past perfect tense in the passive voice

(active) She had cooked dinner before he got home
(passive) Dinner had been cooked before he got home

(active) They had already finished painting the house by the time he came back from work
(passive) The house had been painted by time he came back from work.

Exercises

1. Change these into the passive voice:
(i) They had lost the match before the manager even arrived.
(ii) Her husband had cooked dinner before she got home from work.
(iii) By the end of the 20th century, people had killed many species of animals.

2. Change these out of the passive voice:
(i) The fan had been fixed by the time they got home.
(ii) They got home to find a tree had been knocked over by the wind.
(iii) When Dave returned from his holiday, he found the locks on his door had been changed by his wife.