‘People’ vs. ‘Persons’

Common Modern Usage Generally 'person' is used for the singular. 'People' is used for the plural. 1 person 100 people 'Persons' The common modern usage of 'person' and 'people' is quite simple. However, the technical usage is not so clear because the language has changed. Consequently 'persons' is still used…
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The Zero Article

Not every noun needs 'a', 'an' or 'the'. There are also times when you can drop 'a', 'an' and 'the' Uses of the zero article 1. When talking generally about uncountable nouns 2. Pronouns usually don't need 'a' or 'the' 3. When talking about some places or transport, we can…
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Fronted Structures

What is a fronted structure? There are times (usually speaking) when basic grammar is changed so people can emphasise something. It is often used for negative sentences. To do this, the most important word or idea is moved to the front. Examples of fronted structures Never have I heard such…
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Invitations and Offers

Different phrases suggest different levels of formality (less polite or more polite) General Invitation Phrases Fancy (noun)? (very informal) Fancy ...ing? (very informal) Do you fancy (noun)? (very informal) Do you fancy ...ing? (very informal) Do you want (noun)? (informal) Do you want ()? (informal) Would you like (noun)? (polite)…
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Wish vs. Hope

Wish There are different types of 'wish' structures: 1. Wanting a change of state 2. Wishing for ability 3. Regret 4. Annoyance / want for external activity to stop or start 5. Congratulations Wanting a change of state (wish + past tense) I wish I had more money. I wish…
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Hypotheticals

Hypotheticals are situations one imagines - they are based on the idea 'what if x happened?' The 2nd Conditional () The second conditional is 'if x happened, what would be the result?' The second conditional takes the past tense, the past continuous, or 'could' (instead of 'can') The hypothetical 'if'…
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Reduced Adverbial Clauses

An adverbial clause is a clause that relates to, or changes, the verb in the main clause (an adverbial clause must go with a main clause). Different Adverbial Clauses There are several different types of adverbial clause: 1. time clauses  - I went to school after I ate breakfast. 2.…
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