If: The 1st Conditional

The '1st Conditional for cause and effect (if this happens, then this will happen) How to make the 1st conditional There is one special thing to remember in the 1st conditional: (i) the effect uses 'will' - examples: if you do this, I will give you $10 if you don't…
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Grammar 4

If: The 2nd Conditional

The 2nd Conditional for hypotheticals (things that you can imagine, but are not true) How to make the 2nd conditional There are two things to remember for the 2nd conditional: (i) the 'if' phrase uses the past tense (ii) the imagined part uses 'would' - examples: if I won $1m,…
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If: The 3rd Conditional

The 3rd Conditional for 'alternative realities' (= things that never happened) These are for thinking about moments in the past when one thing happened, but imagining what it would be like if something different had happened. How to make the 3rd conditional (i) past perfect + would/could/might have (for changes…
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If: The 0 Conditional

The 0 Conditional for things that are always true (present tense + present tense) How to make the 0 conditional The 0 conditional is 'if' phrase, plus 'result' phrase. Unlike the other conditionals, the 0 conditionals takes no special words. - examples if it gets hot, ice melts if people…
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Present Perfect Continuous

There are times the present perfect and the present perfect continuous can both mean the same thing. However, there are other times when it is important to know the difference. Present Perfect Review If you use the present perfect, it means you did something between a time and now (action…
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Regrets

Regrets are things that you did, but now wish you had not done (or things you did not do, but now wish you had done) How to express regret I wish + past perfect - example I wish I hadn't called her a 'dog-faced idiot'. Now she won't talk to…
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